Lice aka fleas
A few times a week I will have someone pull me aside and check my hair for lice, what some people call fleas. Lice is a big problem in the village, and it is really interesting from an outsiders perspective to see what people do to combat the problem.
You will always find people grooming each other to check for the little nasty creatures. Some people comb them out with the lice combs, and dispose of them on a cloth (I am not sure what happens to them after than), which other pick them out and eat them. Still others take a more inventive approach.
I heard a story once about a volunteer who let her village help her with her lice problem. They sprayed a lot of the toxic bug spray in their hair, along with oranges (I think it was oranges), and wrapped it overnight. The next day, the lice were all dead.
I have had lice only once since being here (knock on wood) and I did the normal treatment we participate in America with, shampooing them out. It took a few weeks, but they finally disappeared completely.
No matter what, I always go over when a women calls me over to check my hair, because it is a comforting thought that they will help me with whatever problem I may encounter.